Kinds of Systems (Ludwig Von Bertalanffy,1972)
An open system (all living systems) is always dependent upon an environment with which it can exchange matter, energy and information, while a closed system is only open for the input of information (energy).
The differences between open and closed systems are relative. An organism is a typical example of open system but, taken together with its environment, it may be considered as a closed system.
Closed systems is not isolated systems which are totally closed from their environment, and the concept is not applicable in reality (cosmos is environmentless, and hence it is isolated)
Environment (not the boundary) should be seen as those parts that 1) beyond the direct control the system, and 2) yet they influence the behaviour of the system. The immediate environment is next higher level of system minus the system itself. The entire environment to a system includes this immediate environment plus all systems at higher levels which contain it.