- Interrelationship and Interdependence of objects and their attributes Unrelated and independent elements can never constitute a system.
- Holism Holistic properties not possible to detect by analysis should be possible to define in the system.
- Goal seeking Systemic interaction must result in some goal or final state to be reached or some equilibrium point being approached.
- Transformation process All systems, if they are to attain their goal, must transform inputs into outputs. In living systems this transformation is mainly of a cyclical nature.
- Inputs and outputs In a closed system the inputs are determined once and for all; in an open system additional inputs are admitted from its environment.