Properties of Systems
Entropy This is the amount of disorder or randomness present in any system. All non-living systems tend to toward disorder; left alone they will eventually lose all motion and degenerate into an inert mass. When this permanent stage is reached and no events occur, maximum entropy is attained. A living system can, for a finite time, avert this unalterable process by importing energy from its environment. It is then said to create negentropy, something which is characteristic of all kinds of life.
Regulation The interrelated objects constituting the system must be regulated in some fashion so that goals can be realised. Regulation implies that necessary deviations will be detected and corrected. Feedback is therefore a requisite of effective control. Typical of surviving open systems is a stable state of dynamic equilibrium.