Properties of Systems
Hierarchy Systems are generally complex wholes made up of smaller subsystems. This nesting of systems within other systems is what is implied by hierarchy.
Differentiation In complex systems, specialised units perform specialised functions. This is a characteristic of all complex systems and may also be called specialisation or division of labour.
Equifinality and multifinality A profound difference between most closed systems and open systems is expressed by the concept of "equifinality." In an closed system the final state of the system is determined by its initial conditions. A change in the initial conditions produces a change in the final conditions. A different behaviour is shown among open systems : under many conditions the same final state may be reached from different ways.