Widely-Known Systems Principles
System holism principle: A system has holistic properties not manifested by any of its parts. The parts have properties not manifested by the system as a whole.
Sub-optimisation principle: If each subsystem, regarded separately, is made to operate with maximum efficiency, the system as a whole will not operate with utmost efficiency.
Darkness principle: No system can be known completely.
Hierarchy principle: Complex natural phenomena are organised in hierarchies wherein each level is made of several integrated systems.
Redundancy of resources principle: Maintenance of stability under condition of disturbance requires redundancy of critical resources.
Relaxation time principle: System stability is possible only if the system’s relaxation time.