General Principles of Living Systems
The omnivory principle: The greater the number of different resources and of pathways for their flow to the main system components, the less likely the system will become unstable. In other words: spread the risk or ’do not put all your eggs in one basket.
The variety-adaptability principle: Systemic variety enhances stability by increasing adaptability.
The system separability principle: System stability increases as the mean strength of interaction between components is decreased. Stability is enhanced by separating the elements of the system from one another.
The buffering principle: Stability is enhanced by maintaining a surplus. An unused reserve cannot however help the system.
The redundancy principle: Errors in information transmission can be prevented by increasing the redundancy in the messages.