Boulding’s Hierarchy of Systems Complexity
Frameworks: A static structure, relationship, function or position (buildings, crystal atoms, cells)
Clockworks: Predetermined motion like a clock (engines, the solar system, computer)
Cybernetics: Seeking a predetermined goal in a dynamic environment by feedback ( automatic control systems)
Open systems: Exchanging matter, energy and information with environment to maintain and reproduce itself ( Living organism, cell)
Genetic-societal: Mutual dependence and labour division between the components in order to be viable (plant)
Animal: Various degrees of consciousness, memory, information processing, teleological behaviour and mobility.
Human (individual): Self-consciousness, language capability, knowledge accumulation, design and use of tools.
Social organisation: Organised as countries, organisations, and communities to carry out activities of social production, education, research, politics, religion, etc.
Transcendental: The unknown but is presupposed to have systemic structure and relationship.