Eight Hierarchical Levels of Living Systems
Cells: composed of non-living molecules and multimolecular complexes
Organs: composed of structures of cell aggregates.
Organisms: composed of organs as plants and animals.
Groups: two or more organisms which interact form a group. the highest level exists among animals.
Organisations: Formed by group and labour divisions, organisations have many types, e.g., church, university, government, hospital, etc.
Communities: When different types of organisations interact they form a community. A town, with its schools, hospital, local managers is an example.
Societies: With components of communities of various kinds and functions, a society has essential capabilities as a self -subsistent system, e.g., a nation.
Supranational systems: Two or more societies co-operate to make decisions, e.g., NATO, EU, UN.