Model-based Simulation Training Supporting Military Operational Processes

Document type: Dissertations
Full text:
Author(s): Charlotte Sennersten
Title: Model-based Simulation Training Supporting Military Operational Processes
Series: Blekinge Institute of Technology Doctoral Dissertation Series
Year: 2010
Issue: 5
ISBN: 978-91-7295-184-6
ISSN: 1653-2090
Publisher: Blekinge Institute of Technology
City: Karlskrona
Organization: Blekinge Institute of Technology
Department: School of Computing (Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation)
School of Computing S-371 79 Karlskrona
+46 455 38 50 00
http://www.bth.se/com
Authors e-mail: charlotte.sennersten@bth.se
Language: English
Abstract: In military training contexts, fast and long term decisions are intermixed where survival and security are prioritized. Simulation-based training, here applied to ground patrols in Afghanistan, can provide preparation for mission critical and life critical operations prior to exposure to real danger. Optimising the effectiveness of simulation-based training raises the need for more detailed representations of the competences required, both for simulation design and for evaluating simulation effectiveness. These needs are here considered in terms of three research questions . The first research question asks how objects trigger dialogue in observational tasks. Eye gaze tracking and recorded dialogue provide a foundation for proposing the cognitive operational structures behind how objects and dialogue are structured when people work together when collaborating in simulation-based training sessions. The objects are tracked along with related observational tasks and the communication between people in a team in ground vehicles and in the Tactical Operations Centre (TOC). The second research question asks how the results of simulation-based training for emergency situations can be described and evaluated. The last research question asks how debriefing and learning create and refine cognitive comprehension, the competency developed in a group. Low level visual cognition in a tactical environment is explored using an eye gaze tracking system integrated with a simulation environment. The integrated system has been evaluated, its accuracy characterized, and the system was then used to evaluate hypotheses related to visual queuing and target selection. The research questions are then explored more broadly based upon two exploratory field studies of simulation-based training sessions held for military staff before leaving for ISAF in Afghanistan. Study methods here include eye gaze tracking, video and audio recording, behavioral observation and retrospective questions. The field studies were conducted at the Swedish Life Guard Regiment sub-departments: International Training Unit(IntUtbE), pre-deployment training for Peace support operations, and Swedish Armed Forces International Centre (SWEDINT), with their Simulation, Modeling and Practical Platform.
Based upon data obtained in the field studies, cognitive models of decision processes involved in operational task performance are developed to provide a basis for answering the research questions. Cognitive modelling begins with the Belief, Desire and Intension (BDI) model. This model is then modified in several steps to cover different levels of decision making revealed by the field studies, including an intrapersonal and organizational layer, an educational layer, a layer where objects are build into the algorithm as a basis for purposive behavior, and finally a team competency layer built largely during debriefing sessions. These models can be used to evaluate simulation-based training effectiveness, to provide feedback both in real time and retrospectively to trainees and teams, and potentially could be used in operational systems to provide real-time information about individual and group state during operations, for decision enhancement, and potentially as elements of the implementation of automated operational forces.
Subject: Digital Game Development\General
Keywords: Cognitive modelling, Simulation-based training, Military operations
URN: urn:nbn:se:bth-00469
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