Ted Kransby ＆ Shinji Onoda , pp. 89. TKS/Fysisk planering, 2008.
Today, it is common to see Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) as a tool to enhance environmental consideration for Policies, Plans and Programmes (PPP) through decision making processes. However, SEAs in both Sweden and Japan are pointed out that they have been facing some challenges. The purpose of the thesis is, therefore, to find out problems of SEA implementation, especially by looking at and making comparisons of wind power plants in Sweden and electric power plants in Japan as case studies. Although Sweden and Japan have a long history of Environmental Assessment, our study shows that SEA in the field of energy planning in both countries has not been effectively used yet. Through the study, some of the problems surrounding the SEA have become visible, which include mixed understanding and confusion of SEA for PPP and Environmental Impact Assessment for projects; inappropriate planning system as an obstacle of SEA usage; national policy as a cause of resistance/hesitation for SEA; and insufficient public access to the environmental information.