Abbas (Behrad) Mirafshar , pp. 115. ING/School of Engineering, 2012.
Due to the current, global challenges such as resource depletion and economic crisis, and international societal mega-trends such as multi-internationalisation, we are in transition from conventional methods of production to relatively novel methods that strives to be competitive, satisfy customer needs and have a lower environmental impact. Product-Service System (PSS) method is deemed to be a solid alternative towards this vision. To do that, we are in need of novel approaches to re-envision the current system. Therefore, Innovation methods are the backbone of PSS. Since PSS highly emphasizes the customers' needs and co-creation with them, user-innovation methods are required in order to boost PSS Innovation. Among user-innovation methods, Crowdsourcing seems to be valid option which would enable us to attract a large, undefined network of people to the innovation process. In this research, a success model for crowdsourcing practice is proposed and validated by literature and expert interviews. As a follow-up, based on the success model, a strategic guideline for innovation using open modes of collaboration is proposed. Moreover, we discuss the implication of PSS and sustainability and how these concepts can be empowered by crowdsourcing.