Keyhole Effect in Dual-Hop MIMO AF Relay Transmission with Space-Time Block Codes

Document type: Journal Articles
Article type: Original article
Popular science: Yes
Peer reviewed: Yes
Author(s): Quang Trung Duong, Himal A. Suraweera, Theodoros A. Tsiftsis, Hans-Jürgen Zepernick, Arumugam Nallanathan
Title: Keyhole Effect in Dual-Hop MIMO AF Relay Transmission with Space-Time Block Codes
Journal: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Year: 2012
Volume: 60
Issue: 12
Pagination: 1-11
ISSN: 0090-6778
Publisher: IEEE
URI/DOI: 10.1109/TCOMM.2012.110616.110616
ISI number: 000312833300017
Organization: Blekinge Institute of Technology
Department: School of Computing (Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation)
School of Computing S-371 79 Karlskrona
+46 455 38 50 00
Authors e-mail:
Language: English
Abstract: In this paper, the effect of keyhole on the performance of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) amplifyand-forward (AF) relay networks with orthogonal space-time
block codes (OSTBCs) transmission is investigated. In particular, we analyze the asymptotic symbol error probability (SEP) performance of a downlink communication system where the amplifying processing at the relay can be implemented by either the linear or squaring approach. Our tractable asymptotic SEP expressions enable us to obtain both diversity and array gains.
Our finding reveals that with condition nS > min(nR, nD), the
linear approach can provide the full achievable diversity gain of
min(nR, nD) when only the second hop suffers from the keyhole effect, i.e., single keyhole effect (SKE), where nS, nR, and nD are the number of antennas at source, relay, and destination, respectively. However, for the case that both the source-relay and relay-destination links experience the keyhole effect, i.e., double keyhole effect (DKE), the achievable diversity order is only one regardless of the number of antennas. In contrast, utilizing the squaring approach, the overall diversity gain can be achieved as
min(nR, nD) for both SKE and DKE. An important observation
corroborated by our studies is that for satisfying the tradeoff
between performance and complexity, we should use the linear
approach for SKE and the squaring approach for DKE.
Subject: Telecommunications\General