Digital Transmission and Radio Systems ET2434 (Old Code ET1310)

Course information

  • The course will be given in English.
  • The students need to have good understanding of Fourier Transforms, Sampling Theory, Random Processes and Probability Theory.
  • Course Level: D
  • Course Start Date Period 3
  • Text Book Simon Haykin, Digital Communications, Wiely, 1988
  • Responsible teacher and lecturer: Professor Abbas Mohammed.
  • Syllabus (Swedish)
  • Syllabus (English translation)

Course overview

The aim of this course is to develop a fundamental understanding of Digital Communications.

Major topics will include:

Detection Theory (representation of signals, optimal receivers, probability of error analysis)
Digital Modulation Techniques (generation, representation, spectral characteristics, performance in random noise)
Baseband shaping for data transmission (ISI, Nyquist Theory for zero ISI, eye pattern, equalisation)
Brief introduction to coding theory (source and channel coding, channel capacity)
Radio wave propagation, channel effects
Examples of Communication Systems and Emerging Technologies will be given.

Course material


  • Digital Communications
    Simon Haykin
    Wiley, 1988, 597 pages
    ISBN: 0-471-63775-0 Soft Cover, or 0-471-62947-2 Hard Cover
  • Laboratory experiment instructions

Reference literature:

  • Ahlin Lars, Zander Jens
    Digital radiokommunikationssystem och metoder
    Studentlitteratur, 1992 418 s
    ISBN 91-44-34551-8 (swedish)
  • Lars Ahlin, Jens Zander
    Principles of Wireless Communications
    Studentlitteratur, 1998, 418 pages
    ISBN 91-44-00762-0
  • Lee William C
    Mobile Cellular Telecommunications Systems
    Mc Graw-Hill, 1989 449 s
    ISBN 0-07-100790-3
  • John G. Proakis
    Digital Communications
    McGraw-Hill, 1995,  928 pages
    ISBN 0-07-051726-6 
  • Marvin K. Simon et al.
    Digital Communications Techniques: Signal Design and Detection
    Prentice Hall, 1995, 888 pages
    ISBN 0-13-200610-3
  • Stephen G. Wilson
    Digital Modulation and Coding
    Prentice Hall, 1996, 677 pages
    ISBN 0-13-210071-1 
  • Alberto Leon-Garcia
    Probability and Random Processes for Electrical Engineering, 2nd edition
    Addison Wesely, 1994, 677 pages
    ISBN 0-201-50037-X

Laboratory Assignments


The labs are compulsory and must be attended by all students.

Send your name and partner's name plus personal numbers and email addresses to the lab instructor Zhe Yang ( before 17 Feb. 2009.

Click here to visit and review the laboratory assignments in Digital Transmission

Hits and comments and introduction to the laboratory assignment will also be given in the class (chapter 3 & 7).

The labs will take place on the following dates: 11 March and 13 March 2009 in Karlskrona. 

Deadlines of each assignment are listed in the Lab Instructions.  It is required to submit your report before the corresponding deadline. 

If you have any questions, please contact lab supervisor at

If necessary, more information will be given here, the class and it's learning


Book marks

Lecture Details: Click here for full lecture details
Lecture Notes: Click here for main points and notes of lectures
Problems: Click here for selected Problems solution


Lecture Details

Lecture Notes. Main points and notes of lectures:
The schedule might be subject to minor changes

First Lecture: General discussion and main points regarding the course
Your questions and thoughts during this discussion are most welcome!

Introductory Reading:
Students should have a basic understanding of: Signals and systems, Fourier Transforms, Probability and random processes. For more information you should refer to the Appendix Section at the end of the book.

    Introduction to the course

Introduction to Digital Communications (Chapter 1)
Review and Signals & their classifications
The Electromagnetic signals and spectrum
Block Diagram of a simplified Communication System
Why Digital Communications?
Tradeoffs in Communications System Design
Fourier Theory
Sampling Theory from communication engineers view
Definitions of Basic Terms and concepts
Formatting: more review of sampling, quantization and encoding (section 4.1, 4.5 and 5.1)
Definitions of Basic Terms and concepts: Characters, bit, symbol, etc.
Examples related to the definitions
Reading: Chapter 1, Chapter 4 pp.134-142, and Chapter 5 pp.172-178

    Chapter 6: Baseband Shaping for Data Transmission

Baseband Shaping for Data Transmission / Chapter 6: Introduction
Discrete PAM Signals / Line Codes (Section 6.1)
Fourier Transform of Rectangular Pulses
Power Spectra of Discrete PAM Signals (Section 6.2)
Intersymbol Interference (Section 6.3) - Introduction
Model and Mathematical Treatment of ISI (Section 6.3)
Nyquist Criterion for zero ISI (Section 6.4) - Ideal Solution
Nyquist Criterion for zero ISI  - Practical Solution
Correlative Coding (Section 6.5)
Eye Pattern (Section 6.6)
Solution to selected problems
Reading: Chapter 6

    Chapter 3: Detection Theory

Detection Theory (Introduction of Chapter 3)
Mathematical Model of Digital Communication System (Section 3.1)
Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization Procedure (Section 3.2)
Geometrical Interpretation of Signals (Section 3.3)
Response of Bank of Correlators to Noisy Input (section 3.4)
Mean, Variance and Covariance Properties (section 3.4)
Detection of Signals in Noise (section 3.5)
Maximum-likelihood Detector (section 3.5) + Correlation Receiver (section 3.7)
Probability of Error (section 3.6)
Union Bound (Section 3.6)
Match Filter Receiver (Section 3.8)
Reading: Chapter 3 (to page 99)

    Chapter 7: Digital Modulation

Digital Modulation Formats (Section 7.1)
Binary Modulation Techniques (Section 7.2) - (BPSK: Error rate 7.2, PSD 7.7, BW efficiency 7.8)
Quadriphase Shift Keying - QPSK (Section 7.3)
Comparison Between Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques (Section 7.5)
M-ary Modulation Techniques (Section 7.6)
Power Spectral Density Calculations (Section 7.7)
Bandwidth Efficiency (Section 7.8)
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (Section 7.6.2)
Noncoherent Modulation (Section 7.4& Section 3.9).  Note that we will not cover the probability of error derivation for noncoherent modulation. However, we will work with the final results.
Multipath propagation
Channel Capacity Theorem (Chapter 2)
Review and Comparisons of Digital Modulation Techniques
Reading: Chapter 7

    Coding Theory

Brief introduction to Source Coding, Channel Capacity Theorem and Channel Coding (Linear Block Codes)
Reading: Chapter 2 (p.13-28) and chapter 8 (p.365-379)

The lecture notes for chapter 2 and 8 are on the lab webpage. Use the same password used in the labs. See also Lectures Summary below.

Review of course and solution to previous exams

Good Luck!

Lectures Summary


The recommended text book is your main source of material presented in this course. Please refer to it for detailed text explanation, figures, block diagrams, mathematical analysis, etc.

The notes below are highlights of main topics taken in the course. They are NOT a replacement for the text book. Most of the math was done on the whiteboard during the class. 

General / Introduction:
Basic Introduction to Digital Communications / Signals & Systems
Why Digital Communications?
Trade-Offs in Digital Communications?
Frequency Bands
Basic Digital Communication Definitions

Chapter 6
Line Codes
Binary (2-level) Figure
4-levels Figures
Intersymbol Interference
Intersymbol Interference (Mathematical Treatment)
Nyquist Criterion for Zero ISI
Correlative Coding I
Duobinary and Modified Duobinary Coding / Example
Eye Pattern (Diagram)
Scatter (Constellation) Diagram - Figure
Adaptive Equalization - Figure

Chapter 3
Gram-Schmidt Procedure / Example
Geometrical Representation of Signals
Basis Function Example for Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK)    (use similar procedure for QPSK)
Constellation (Scatter Diagra) / Signal Space
Correlator Output's Statistical Properties
Maximum-likelihood Detector
Decision Rules
Union Bound Calculations2 Signal Constellation
Match Filter Receiver /Example (see also the integrate & dump circuit on p. 91 and the match filter out put to rectangular pulse on p. 348 in the course textbook)

Match Filter Properties

Chapter 7
Modulation 1 / Modulation 2
Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK)
Binary Frequency Shift Keying (BFSK)
Binary Amplitude Shift Keying (BASK)
Quadrature Modulation / Power Spectral Density
Quadri-Phase Shift Keying (QPSK)
M-ary Digital Modulation Techniques
Power Spectra of Digital Modulation Techniques
Spectral Efficiency
M-ary QAM
Noncoherent Modulation
Channel Capacity (see also chapter 2, section 2.9)

Lecture Notes of Source/Channel Coding

1. Channel Coding (Lecture on 2008-02-27) - Block codes

2. Source Coding (Lecture on 2008-03-06)

Use the same password used in the labs.

See also the book and lab assignments before doing the lab.


Solution to Selected Problems:

Chapter 6

Problem P6.1.1 and P6.1.2
Problem P6.3.2
Problem P6.4.1
Problem P6.4.3
Problem P6.5.6

Chapter 3

Problem P3.2.1
Problem P3.5.1
Problem P3.5.2a (we will solve in the class next week after we take Digital Modulation; however, you can have a try to solve it)

Chapter 7

Problem P7.2.1
Problem P7.2.6
Problem P7.4.5

Old exams

The exam is on 19 March 2009 - We will inform you if this will be changed.

Please have a look at the previous exams below:


Exam 1

Exam 2

Good Luck


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